Speaking of what they termed "social change campaigns", Kotler and Ned Roberto introduced the subject by writing, "A social change campaign is an organized effort conducted by one group (the change agent) which attempts to persuade others (the target adopters) to accept, modify, or abandon certain ideas, attitudes, practices or behavior." Their 1989 text was updated in 2002 by Philip Kotler, Ned Roberto and Nancy Lee.[36] In 2005, University of Stirling was the first university to open a dedicated research institute to Social Marketing,[37] while in 2007, Middlesex University became the first university to offer a specialized postgraduate programme in Health & Social Marketing.[38]
In mid 2016, an Indian tea company (TE-A-ME) has delivered 6,000 tea bags[28] to Donald Trump and launched a video content on YouTube and Facebook. The video campaign received various awards including most creative PR stunt[29] in Southeast Asia after receiving 52000+ video shares, 3.1M video view in first 72-hour and hundreds of publication mentions (including Mashable, Quartz,[30] Indian Express,[31] Buzzfeed[32]) across 80+ countries.

One way marketers can reach out to consumers, and understand their thought process is through what is called an empathy map. An empathy map is a four step process. The first step is through asking questions that the consumer would be thinking in their demographic. The second step is to describe the feelings that the consumer may be having. The third step is to think about what the consumer would say in their situation. The final step is to imagine what the consumer will try to do based on the other three steps. This map is so marketing teams can put themselves in their target demographics shoes.[70] Web Analytics are also a very important way to understand consumers. They show the habits that people have online for each website.[71] One particular form of these analytics is predictive analytics which helps marketers figure out what route consumers are on. This uses the information gathered from other analytics, and then creates different predictions of what people will do so that companies can strategize on what to do next, according to the peoples trends.[72]


Advertisers first need to create a Google AdWords account (and/or a Bing account). Then they’ll need to decide which types of search terms they want their ads to show for by creating keywords. Each keyword has a max CPC assigned to it, which is decided by the advertiser (NOTE: the max CPC is not the number that the advertiser will necessarily be charged, but rather a threshold that the cost should not exceed). This allows advertisers to bid higher on keywords that may be worth more to them. A set of keywords needs to grouped (into an ad group) to direct the user to a specific advertisement and landing page. Google auctions off ad space to advertisers in the Google AdWords auction. During the auction Google ranks advertisers based off of their ad rank, which is determined by their bids and their quality scores. Each auction is different so for one search an advertiser could be in position one on the SERPS and another search the advertiser could fall to position three or four. In order to understand how ad position on the SERPS is determined it’s important to gain a thorough understanding of how the Google AdWords auction works.
In the 2000s, with more and more Internet users and the birth of iPhone, customers started searching products and making decisions about their needs online first, instead of consulting a salesperson, which created a new problem for the marketing department of a company. In addition, a survey in 2000 in the United Kingdom found that most retailers had not registered their own domain address.[14] These problems made marketers find the digital ways for market development.

That said, ground-up marketing works because it’s work. There’s no substitute for careful attention to your website’s content and careful curation of your business’s social media presence. Paid ads can be an effective tool within a high-budget marketing strategy, but if the consumer arrives at your website and doesn’t find what they’re looking for, how is that investment working for you? It’s not. If a sponsored tweet draws them in but a discrepancy in expectation chases them away, what’s the benefit there? It’s absent. Organic marketing is a long process, but ultimately it will yield more authentic customer engagement and more accurate SEO.
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